In May 1991, Buroa Conference had declared Somaliland as a separate independent country. The same has been reaffirmed overwhelming by the constitutional referendum held on 31 May 2001.
In spite of physically destroyed and recapitalized socio-economic frame conditions, Somaliland has made significant achievements in building firm foundations, for democracy, in reviving the war town infrastructure, and more important in consolidating peace and instability, as well as Democratic Elections in Municipality, Presidential and lastly the House of Representatives or Lower House of Parliament.
Somaliland Constitution declares that the sovereign power of the nation belongs to the people who are represented by the parliament. Somaliland has a bi-cameral system of Parliament, which is composed of the House of Elders or the Upper House of Parliament and the House of Representatives or the Lower House.
Clan representation is considered to be highest level of political solidarity among the Somalis. The member of the clan is united through kinship and there is a strong degree of cooperation and mutual collaboration.
Traditionally, the rights and obligation of the society members are defined by Xeer (contract). The Xeer is negotiated by the Elders (The Guurti) of the clans.
Through this traditional, social and political organization the Guurti maintains order and manages conflicts. The ability of the traditional Institutions to provide security, law and order was clearly demonstrated during post war-era that was characterized by insecurity and lawlessness. As the a political and legal entity, the Guurti played in important role in effectively defining political and legal issues not only in clan and intra-clan levels, but at national level. The remarkable success of the Guurti through inter-clan conferences in resolving conflicts and in tacking with political uncertainties has changed its scope and levels of operations.
The House of Elders (Guurti) received its current status in 1993 and later in 1997, as a result of Borame and Hargeisa Conferences resolutions, defining the new role of the Guurti as a legislative entity and safe guarders of peace, since the Guurti prepared the ground for the establishment of modern institutions, this provides a re-assuring experience.
The House of Elders or the Upper House of Parliament of the Republic of Somaliland, similarly with the house of the senate, is a legislative organ (Parliament) of the country that review the laws passed by the House of Representatives or the Lower House of Parliament before there submission to the president of the Republic for approval. Moreover, it has, in particular, the power of enacting the laws concerning the religion and the culture, as well as, the security and stability of the country.
As stated in the Article of 60 in the Constitution, the House of the Elders shall elect from amongst its members, a Speaker, two deputy Speakers and such committees, as it deems necessary. The House shall have a Standing Committee of 25 members.